Can positive thinking actually help your health?
Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus, and may involve removal of the ovaries and fallopian tubes. This surgery is performed for a a variety of reasons, including bleeding, pain, and cancer.
Hysterectomies are performed by gynecologists, and are the most commonly performed gynecologic surgery in the United States. They are the 8th most common surgery overall.
Every year there are 600,000 hysterectomies performed in the United States, 90% of which are for benign conditions. This is the highest rate for this surgery in the world.
Risks of hysterectomy surgery include bleeding, infection, and injury to the urinary tract, which occurs in approximately 1 out of every 1000 cases. The mortality rate for hysterectomy is 0.38 per 1000 cases when performed for benign causes.
Of all women who have a hysterectomy, 35% will have to undergo a related surgery within 2 years.
The average cost of a hysterectomy is about $10,000. Total costs of hysterectomies in the United States is $5 billion per year.
In the United States, the rate of hysterectomies is 5.4 per 1000 women. In Canada, the rate is 3.4 per 1000 women. In Norway, the rate is 1.2 per 1000 women.
In the United States 20% of women will have had a hysterectomy by age of 40, and 33% of women have had a hysterectomy by age 65.
The most common cause of color blindness is genetic. More men are affected than women, as the gene that is affected is on the X chromosome. Women have two X chromosomes, so even if they have the defect on one chromosome, their other X chromosome compensates. Men only have one X chromosome as they are XY.
Red-green is the most common form of color blindness, and affects up to 8% of men and 0.5 % of women. Yellow-blue color blindness is more rare.
Color blindness can affect the ability of a person to become a pilot, train driver, or member of the military. Color blindness can affect the ability to tell the red and green on traffic lights.
There are now special lenses and phone apps that have been developed to help patients who are color blind.
Famous people who were color blind include Bill Clinton, Paul Newman, and Mark Zuckerberg.
Diagnosis can be made with the Ishihara color blindness test, can you see the 74?
Homicidal somnambulism is the act of killing someone while sleepwalking. These are cases were someone is murdered, and the suspect states that they were sleepwalking at the time.
In one famous case, Brian Thomas age 59, who later stated he had problems sleepwalking since childhood, strangled his wife Christine. When he called emergency services, he stated,
“What have I done? I’ve been trying to wake her. I think I’ve killed my wife. Oh my God. I thought someone had broken in. I was fighting with those boys but it was Christine. I must have been dreaming or something. What have I done?…” He claimed he had mistaken his wife for an intruder, waking up to find it was his wife. He was freed in 2009 by a judge, who found him not guilty of murder.”
Is homicidal somnambulism a real thing? We know that when a patient sleeps, we can measure their brain waves and their eye movements. During a period called “non-REM sleep” (non-rapid eye movement), which is a very deep stage of sleep, sleepwalking occurs. During sleepwalking, a person can walk around but does not perceive sight, sound, smells, or even pain. If awoken, they are confused with no memory of the event.
Homicidal somnambulism has been used as a defense in a number of murders, but remains a controversial diagnosis.
There is a shot that can reduce cravings for patients who are trying to stop drinking.
Vivitrol (Naltrexone, other trade name is ReVia) for alcohol treatment is also the same drug that can be used to treat narcotic addiction.
How does it work? It binds to a receptor in the “Addiction Center” of the brain, which decreases the urge to drink.
Vivitrol is given as an IM shot once a month, and is to be used along with counseling for alcohol addiction. Vivitrol also comes in tablets.
The cost for the shot is about $1250 per month, which some insurance plans cover.
The patient has to have stopped drinking for a period of time (about 7-14 days) prior to getting the shot.
Does it work? There is a 25% reduction of heavy drinking for patients who use Vivitrol, with more abstinent days per month. It is a fairly new drug, so more studies are in process.